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Google BigQuery

Setup Guideโ€‹

1. Initalize a project with a pipeline that loads to BigQuery by running

dlt init chess bigquery

2. Install the necessary dependencies for BigQuery by running

pip install -r requirements.txt

This will install dlt with bigquery extra which contains all the dependencies required by bigquery client.

3. Log in to or create a Google Cloud account

Sign up for or log in to the Google Cloud Platform in your web browser.

4. Create a new Google Cloud project

After arriving at the Google Cloud console welcome page, click the project selector in the top left, then click the New Project button, and finally click the Create button after naming the project whatever you would like.

5. Create a service account and grant BigQuery permissions

You will then need to create a service account. After clicking the Go to Create service account button on the linked docs page, select the project you just created and name the service account whatever you would like.

Click the Continue button and grant the following roles, so that dlt can create schemas and load data:

  • BigQuery Data Editor
  • BigQuery Job User
  • BigQuery Read Session User

You don't need to grant users access to this service account at this time, so click the Done button.

6. Download the service account JSON

In the service accounts table page that you are redirected to after clicking Done as instructed above, select the three dots under the Actions column for the service account you just created and select Manage keys.

This will take you to page where you can click the Add key button, then the Create new key button, and finally the Create button, keeping the preselected JSON option.

A JSON file that includes your service account private key will then be downloaded.

7. Update your dlt credentials file with your service account info

Open your dlt credentials file:

open .dlt/secrets.toml

Replace the project_id, private_key, and client_email with the values from the downloaded JSON file:

location = "US"

project_id = "project_id" # please set me up!
private_key = "private_key" # please set me up!
client_email = "client_email" # please set me up!

You can also specify location of the data ie. EU instead of US which is a default.

OAuth 2.0 authenticationโ€‹

You can also use the OAuth 2.0 authentication. You'll need to generate an refresh token with right scopes (I suggest to ask our GPT-4 assistant for details). Then you can fill the following information in secrets.toml

location = "US"

project_id="project_id" # please set me up!
client_id = "client_id" # please set me up!
client_secret = "client_secret" # please set me up!
refresh_token = "refresh_token" # please set me up!

Using default credentialsโ€‹

Google provides several ways to get default credentials ie. from GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS environment variable or metadata services. VMs available on GCP (cloud functions, Composer runners, Colab notebooks) have associated service accounts or authenticated users. dlt will try to use default credentials if nothing is explicitly specified in the secrets

location = "US"

Write dispositionโ€‹

All write dispositions are supported

If you set the replace strategy to staging-optimized the destination tables will be dropped and recreated with a clone command from the staging tables.

Data loadingโ€‹

dlt uses BigQuery load jobs that send files from local filesystem or gcs buckets. Loader follows Google recommendations when retrying and terminating jobs. Google BigQuery client implements elaborate retry mechanism and timeouts for queries and file uploads, which may be configured in destination options.

Supported file formatsโ€‹

You can configure the following file formats to load data to BigQuery

When staging is enabled:

โ— Bigquery cannot load JSON columns from parquet files. dlt will fail such jobs permanently. Switch to jsonl to load and parse JSON properly.

Supported column hintsโ€‹

BigQuery supports the following column hints:

  • partition - creates a partition with a day granularity on decorated column (PARTITION BY DATE). May be used with datetime, date data types and bigint and double if they contain valid UNIX timestamps. Only one column per table is supported and only when a new table is created.
  • cluster - creates a cluster column(s). Many column per table are supported and only when a new table is created.

Staging Supportโ€‹

BigQuery supports gcs as a file staging destination. dlt will upload files in the parquet format to gcs and ask BigQuery to copy their data directly into the db. Please refer to the Google Storage filesystem documentation to learn how to set up your gcs bucket with the bucket_url and credentials. If you use the same service account for gcs and your redshift deployment, you do not need to provide additional authentication for BigQuery to be able to read from your bucket.

Alternatively to parquet files, you can also specify jsonl as the staging file format. For this set the loader_file_format argument of the run command of the pipeline to jsonl.

BigQuery/GCS staging Example Codeโ€‹

# Create a dlt pipeline that will load
# chess player data to the BigQuery destination
# via a gcs bucket.
pipeline = dlt.pipeline(
staging='filesystem', # add this to activate the staging location

Additional destination optionsโ€‹

You can configure the data location and various timeouts as shown below. This information is not a secret so can be placed in config.toml as well.

  • location sets the BigQuery data location (default: US)
  • http_timeout sets the timeout when connecting and getting a response from BigQuery API (default: 15 seconds)
  • file_upload_timeout a timeout for file upload when loading local files: the total time of the upload may not exceed this value (default: 30 minutes, set in seconds)
  • retry_deadline a deadline for a DEFAULT_RETRY used by Google

dbt supportโ€‹

This destination integrates with dbt via dbt-bigquery. Credentials, if explicitly defined, are shared with dbt along with other settings like location and retries and timeouts. In case of implicit credentials (ie. available in cloud function), dlt shares the project_id and delegates obtaining credentials to dbt adapter.

Syncing of dlt stateโ€‹

This destination fully supports dlt state sync

This demo works on codespaces. Codespaces is a development environment available for free to anyone with a Github account. You'll be asked to fork the demo repository and from there the README guides you with further steps.
The demo uses the Continue VSCode extension.

Off to codespaces!


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