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Readers Source and Filesystem

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This verified source easily streams files from AWS S3, Google Cloud Storage, Google Drive, Azure, or local filesystem using the reader source.

Sources and resources that can be used with this verified source are:

readersSourceLists and reads files with resource filesystem and readers transformers
filesystemResourceLists files in bucket_url using file_glob pattern
read_csvResource-transformerReads csv file with Pandas chunk by chunk
read_jsonlResource-transformerReads jsonl file content and extract the data
read_parquetResource-transformerReads parquet file content and extract the data with Pyarrow

Setup Guide

Grab credentials

This source can access various bucket types, including:

  • AWS S3.
  • Google Cloud Storage.
  • Google Drive.
  • Azure Blob Storage.
  • Local Storage

To access these, you'll need secret credentials:

AWS S3 credentials

To get AWS keys for S3 access:

  1. Access IAM in AWS Console.
  2. Select "Users", choose a user, and open "Security credentials".
  3. Click "Create access key" for AWS ID and Secret Key.

For more info, see AWS official documentation.

Google Cloud Storage / Google Drive credentials

To get GCS/GDrive access:

  1. Log in to
  2. Create a service account.
  3. Enable "Cloud Storage API" / "Google Drive API"; see Google's guide.
  4. In IAM & Admin > Service Accounts, find your account, click the three-dot menu > "Manage Keys" > "ADD KEY" > "CREATE" to get a JSON credential file.
  5. Grant the service account appropriate permissions for cloud storage access.

For more info, see how to create service account.

Azure Blob Storage credentials

To obtain Azure blob storage access:

  1. Go to Azure Portal (
  2. Select "Storage accounts" > your storage.
  3. Click "Settings" > "Access keys".
  4. View account name and two keys (primary/secondary). Keep keys confidential.

For more info, see Azure official documentation.

Initialize the verified source

To get started with your data pipeline, follow these steps:

  1. Enter the following command:

    dlt init filesystem duckdb

    This command will initialize the pipeline example with filesystem as the source and duckdb as the destination.

  2. If you'd like to use a different destination, simply replace duckdb with the name of your preferred destination.

  3. After running this command, a new directory will be created with the necessary files and configuration settings to get started.

For more information, read the Walkthrough: Add a verified source.

Add credentials

  1. In the .dlt folder, there's a file called secrets.toml. It's where you store sensitive information securely, like access tokens. Keep this file safe. Here's its format for service account authentication:

    [sources.filesystem.credentials] # use [sources.readers.credentials] for the "readers" source
    # For AWS S3 access:
    aws_access_key_id="Please set me up!"
    aws_secret_access_key="Please set me up!"

    # For GCS bucket / Google Drive access:
    client_email="Please set me up!"
    private_key="Please set me up!"
    project_id="Please set me up!"

    # For Azure blob storage access:
    azure_storage_account_name="Please set me up!"
    azure_storage_account_key="Please set me up!"
  2. Finally, enter credentials for your chosen destination as per the docs.

  3. You can pass the bucket URL and glob pattern or use config.toml. For local filesystems, use file:// or skip the schema and provide the local path in a format native for your operating system.

    [sources.filesystem] # use [sources.readers.credentials] for the "readers" source

    In the example above we use Windows path to current user's Documents folder. Mind that literal toml string (single quotes) was used to conveniently use the backslashes without need to escape.

    For remote file systems you need to add the schema, it will be used to get the protocol being used:

    [sources.filesystem] # use [sources.readers.credentials] for the "readers" source
    # bucket_url="az://my-bucket/csv_files/" - for Azure Blob Storage
    # bucket_url="gdrive://my-bucket/csv_files/" - for Google Drive folder
    # bucket_url="gs://my-bucket/csv_files/" - for Google Storage
    bucket_url="s3://my-bucket/csv_files/" # for AWS S3

    For Azure, use adlfs>=2023.9.0. Older versions mishandle globs.

Use local file system paths

You can use both native local file system paths and in form of file: uri. Absolute, relative and UNC Windows paths are supported. You can find relevant examples in filesystem destination documentation which follows the same rules to specify the bucket_url.


Windows supports paths up to 255 characters. When you access a path longer than 255 characters you'll see FileNotFound exception.

To go over this limit you can use extended paths. Note that Python glob does not work with extended UNC paths so you will not be able to use them

bucket_url = '\\?\C:\a\b\c'

Run the pipeline

  1. Before running the pipeline, ensure that you have installed all the necessary dependencies by running the command:

    pip install -r requirements.txt
  2. Install optional modules:

    • For AWS S3:
      pip install s3fs
    • For Azure blob:
      pip install adlfs>=2023.9.0
    • GCS storage: No separate module needed.
  3. You're now ready to run the pipeline! To get started, run the following command:

  4. Once the pipeline has finished running, you can verify that everything loaded correctly by using the following command:

    dlt pipeline <pipeline_name> show

    For example, the pipeline_name for the above pipeline example is standard_filesystem, you may also use any custom name instead.

For more information, read the Walkthrough: Run a pipeline.

Sources and resources

dlt works on the principle of sources and resources.

Source readers

This source offers chunked file readers as resources, which can be optionally customized. Provided resources include:

  • read_csv()
  • read_jsonl()
  • read_parquet()
@dlt.source(_impl_cls=ReadersSource, spec=FilesystemConfigurationResource)
def readers(
bucket_url: str = dlt.secrets.value,
credentials: Union[FileSystemCredentials, AbstractFileSystem] = dlt.secrets.value,
file_glob: Optional[str] = "*",
) -> Tuple[DltResource, ...]:
  • bucket_url: The url to the bucket.
  • credentials: The credentials to the filesystem of fsspec AbstractFilesystem instance.
  • file_glob: Glob filter for files. Defaults to non-recursive listing in the bucket.

We advise that you give each resource a specific name before loading with This will make sure that data goes to a table with the name you want and that each pipeline uses a separate state for incremental loading.

Resource filesystem

This resource lists files in bucket_url based on the file_glob pattern, returning them as FileItem with data access methods. These can be paired with transformers for enhanced processing.

primary_key="file_url", spec=FilesystemConfigurationResource, standalone=True
def filesystem(
bucket_url: str = dlt.secrets.value,
credentials: Union[FileSystemCredentials, AbstractFileSystem] = dlt.secrets.value,
file_glob: Optional[str] = "*",
files_per_page: int = DEFAULT_CHUNK_SIZE,
extract_content: bool = False,
) -> Iterator[List[FileItem]]:
  • bucket_url: URL of the bucket.
  • credentials: Filesystem credentials of AbstractFilesystem instance.
  • file_glob: File filter in glob format. Defaults to listing all non-recursive files in bucket URL.
  • files_per_page: Number of files processed at once. Default: 100.
  • extract_content: If true, the content of the file will be read and returned in the resource. Default: False.

Filesystem Integration and Data Extraction Guide

Filesystem Usage

  • The filesystem tool enumerates files in a selected bucket using a glob pattern, returning details as FileInfo in customizable page sizes.

  • This resource integrates with transform functions and transformers for customized extraction pipelines.

To load data into a specific table (instead of the default filesystem table), see the snippet below:

def read_csv(items, chunksize: int = 15):
"""Reads csv file with Pandas chunk by chunk."""

# list only the *.csv in specific folder and pass the file items to read_csv()
met_files = (
filesystem(bucket_url="s3://my_bucket/data", file_glob="csv_folder/*.csv")
| read_csv()
# load to met_csv table using with_name()"csv_data"))

Use the standalone filesystem resource to list files in s3, GCS, and Azure buckets. This allows you to customize file readers or manage files using fsspec.

files = filesystem(bucket_url="s3://my_bucket/data", file_glob="csv_folder/*.csv")

The filesystem ensures consistent file representation across bucket types and offers methods to access and read data. You can quickly build pipelines to:

  • Extract text from PDFs.
  • Stream large file content directly from buckets.
  • Copy files locally.

FileItem Representation

  • All dlt sources/resources that yield files follow the FileItem contract.
  • File content is typically not loaded; instead, full file info and methods to access content are available.
  • Users can request an authenticated fsspec AbstractFileSystem instance.

FileItem Fields:

  • file_url - Complete URL of the file; also the primary key (e.g. s3://bucket-name/path/file).
  • file_name - Name of the file from the bucket URL.
  • relative_path - Set when doing glob, is a relative path to a bucket_url argument.
  • mime_type - File's mime type; sourced from the bucket provider or inferred from its extension.
  • modification_date - File's last modification time (format: pendulum.DateTime).
  • size_in_bytes - File size.
  • file_content - Content, provided upon request.

When using a nested or recursive glob pattern, relative_path will include the file's path relative to bucket_url. For instance, using the resource: filesystem("az://dlt-ci-test-bucket/standard_source/samples", file_glob="met_csv/A801/*.csv") will produce file names relative to the /standard_source/samples path, such as met_csv/A801/A881_20230920.csv. For local filesystems, POSIX paths (using "/" as separator) are returned.

File Manipulation

FileItem, backed by a dictionary implementation, offers these helper methods:

  • read_bytes(): Returns the file content as bytes.
  • open(): Provides a file object when opened.
  • filesystem: Gives access to an authorized AbstractFilesystem with standard fsspec methods.


Create your own pipeline

If you wish to create your own pipelines, you can leverage source and resource methods from this verified source.

  1. Configure the pipeline by specifying the pipeline name, destination, and dataset as follows:

    pipeline = dlt.pipeline(
    pipeline_name="standard_filesystem", # Use a custom name if desired
    destination="duckdb", # Choose the appropriate destination (e.g., duckdb, redshift, post)
    dataset_name="filesystem_data_csv" # Use a custom name if desired
  2. To read and load CSV files:

    BUCKET_URL = "YOUR_BUCKET_PATH_HERE"   # path of the bucket url or local destination
    met_files = readers(
    bucket_url=BUCKET_URL, file_glob="directory/*.csv"
    # tell dlt to merge on date
    met_files.apply_hints(write_disposition="merge", merge_key="date")
    # We load the data into the met_csv table
    load_info ="table_name"))
    • The file_glob parameter targets all CSVs in the "met_csv/A801" directory.

    • The print(pipeline.last_trace.last_normalize_info) line displays the data normalization details from the pipeline's last trace.


      If you have a default bucket URL set in .dlt/config.toml, you can omit the bucket_url parameter.

  3. To load only new CSV files with incremental loading:

    # This configuration will only consider new csv files
    new_files = filesystem(bucket_url=BUCKET_URL, file_glob="directory/*.csv")
    # add incremental on modification time
    load_info = | read_csv()).with_name("csv_files"))
  4. To read and load Parquet and JSONL from a bucket:

    jsonl_reader = readers(BUCKET_URL, file_glob="**/*.jsonl").read_jsonl(
    # PARQUET reading
    parquet_reader = readers(BUCKET_URL, file_glob="**/*.parquet").read_parquet()
    # load both folders together to specified tables
    load_info =
    • The file_glob: Specifies file pattern; reads all JSONL and Parquet files across directories.
    • The chunksize: Set to 10,000; data read in chunks of 10,000 records each.
    • print(pipeline.last_trace.last_normalize_info): Displays the data normalization details from the pipeline's last trace.
  5. To set up a pipeline that reads from an Excel file using a standalone transformer:

    # Define a standalone transformer to read data from an Excel file.
    def read_excel(
    items: Iterator[FileItemDict], sheet_name: str
    ) -> Iterator[TDataItems]:
    # Import the required pandas library.
    import pandas as pd

    # Iterate through each file item.
    for file_obj in items:
    # Open the file object.
    with as file:
    # Read from the Excel file and yield its content as dictionary records.
    yield pd.read_excel(file, sheet_name).to_dict(orient="records")

    # Set up the pipeline to fetch a specific Excel file from a filesystem (bucket).
    example_xls = filesystem(
    bucket_url=BUCKET_URL, file_glob="../directory/example.xlsx"
    ) | read_excel("example_table") # Pass the data through the transformer to read the "example_table" sheet.

    # Execute the pipeline and load the extracted data into the "duckdb" destination.
    load_info =

    # Print the loading information.

    The code loads data from example.xlsx into the duckdb destination.

  6. To copy files locally, add a step in the filesystem resource and then load the listing to the database:

     def _copy(item: FileItemDict) -> FileItemDict:
    # instantiate fsspec and copy file
    dest_file = os.path.join(local_folder, item["file_name"])
    # create dest folder
    os.makedirs(os.path.dirname(dest_file), exist_ok=True)
    # download file["file_url"], dest_file)
    # return file item unchanged
    return item

    # use recursive glob pattern and add file copy step
    downloader = filesystem(BUCKET_URL, file_glob="**").add_map(_copy)

    # NOTE: you do not need to load any data to execute extract, below we obtain
    # a list of files in a bucket and also copy them locally
    listing = list(downloader)
    # download to table "listing"
    load_info =
    downloader.with_name("listing"), write_disposition="replace"
    # pretty print the information on data that was loaded
  7. Cleanup after loading:

    You can get a fsspec client from filesystem resource after it was extracted i.e. in order to delete processed files etc. The filesystem module contains a convenient method fsspec_from_resource that can be used as follows:

    from filesystem import filesystem, fsspec_from_resource
    # get filesystem source
    gs_resource = filesystem("gs://ci-test-bucket/")
    # extract files | read_csv)
    # get fs client
    fs_client = fsspec_from_resource(gs_resource)
    # do any operation"ci-test-bucket/standard_source/samples")

Additional Setup guides

This demo works on codespaces. Codespaces is a development environment available for free to anyone with a Github account. You'll be asked to fork the demo repository and from there the README guides you with further steps.
The demo uses the Continue VSCode extension.

Off to codespaces!


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